In times of high speed development of science and technology, farming is also moving closer to mechanized production. Mechanized production has brought convenience to the farmers, but it can not completely relieve the farmers’ worries…… Take wheat for example, after the harvest by means of large harvester, there still some residual weed, dust, platycodon. In fact, not just the wheat, harvest of rice, corn, jowar also have this problem. So let the late clean-up work have some trouble…… For this problem, we have developed a series of grain sorting equipment. This device is to sift through the vibrating screen to remove debris. The commissariats can achieve the purpose of screening by controlling the opening and closing of the gate, it can take a long-term screening after once feeding.
Wheat sorting machine is mainly used for wheat classification and impurities, we can choose it according to different needs: ordinary rotary shale shaker, and edge type vibrating screen, gate type vibrating screen, which is also called starch special screening, can be used for the screening classification of wheat starch, flour, corn starch, etc..
Rice sorting shale shaker of rice is mainly used for removing impurity and classification. Seed rice vibrating screen can remove the impurity, dust, weeds in the rice, it can also make the classification of rice. Specific rice sieve extension can be divided into several levels, which can be according to the specific needs of customers to develop rice sieving machine layers, screen mesh, and rice sieving machine size.
Corn sorting shale shaker machine is mainly used for niblet size classification, which is a practical application of DZSF type linear shale shaker. Specific screening process is: material from the feeder evenly into the shaker feeding port, under the excitation of vibration motor, move up and down to the direction of the discharge port side and screening, through the multilayer sieve screening out several kinds of products and unqualified materials above and down the sieve, separately from their respective export discharged into the hopper or holding barrel.
(1) Erosion is caused by high velocity fluid which carrying a solid phase.
(2) Erosion often occurs in the interior of the pipeline, at the place of the constriction, at the corner of the bend, and where there is a turbulent flow. Erosion can cut the pipe in a few minutes, causing the damage of whole system, and this damage will not be repaired, this damage is not visible in the visual.
(3) The velocity of the fluid in the pipe is directly related to the flow of the fluid. In the short-term exploration tests, to the pipeline that for installed forever the flow rate standard recommended by the 14E API is not permitted for permanent installations.
(4) In the last hours of exploration test, if there is no sand output, velocity can be exceed the standards of API 14e, in case if there is out of the sand, we must abide by the API defined speed. Gas pipeline 80 feet / sec (/ s) tubing line within 15 feet / sec (4.5m / s).
Waste drilling fluid produced in the processes of drilling and production is a kind of multi phase stable colloidal suspension of objects containing clay, weight materials, various chemical treatment agent, sewage, waste oil and cuttings. The main ingredients of impact on the environment are hydrocarbons, salts, polymers, heavy metal ion, impurities in barite and asphalt and other modified materials. The major environmental pollutants have the characteristics of high COD, high BOD, high oil, high Ci, high pH, high hanging objects, and contains heavy metal salts. If remaining it in the wellsite storage pool, it will produce adverse effects on underground (table) water and soil, and endanger the surrounding ecological environment, and may even cause pollution accident. With the increasingly stringent environmental standards of national and local environmental protection requirements, environmental compliance management work is an urgent task, the task is arduous.
Drilling waste mud is one of the main pollution sources of oil and gas industry, and the waste disposal is a difficult problem in the field of petroleum and natural gas industry. In the <the national hazardous waste list > abandoned in 2008, the “waste sludge processing drilling fluid produced” (waste code 071-002-08) has been included in the national hazardous waste names. Along with national laws and regulations are becoming more and more perfect, improvement of environmental protection requirements of local government and Enhancement of environmental protection consciousness in oil field, The development of drilling waste treatment technology is imperative.
When submersible slurry pump dealing with the slurry containing a lot of impurity particles, a filtration net is placed on the water inlet, this can reduce the the impurity particles into the pump body, and reduce probability of pump be stuck and prolong the service life of slurry pump. Using time of slurry pump should not be too long, if you have a spare pump, it is best to take turns in the form of operation work.
Pats of submersible slurry pump have adopted mechanical seal, the use of this kind of slurry pump must guarantee seal water supply, and forbid the anhydrous state operation, avoid burnout of the mechanical seal because of dry grinding. Generally speaking, before the use of slurry pump with mechanical seal, should connect the shaft seal water, and should at least keep the water supply for more than 3 minutes after stopping the pump.
The mechanical seal is generally used in the condition of submersible slurry pump has relatively high demand for sealing. When the submeisible slurry pump equipped with mechanical seal liquid and spare parts is not used for a long period of time, mechanical seal part should be filled with the N46 machinery oil to prevent mechanical seal parts rusting and the internal rubber parts losing efficacy. Mechanical seal have the characteristics of no leakage, low power consumption and others. And the most important is not allow to the addition of extra ingredients into the pump body. The disadvantage is that the cost is high, maintenance difficulties, etc..
The size, shape and operation mode of shale shaker screen have a variety of ways. Together with the performance of drilling fluid, the type the number of drilling bits on the screen surface and the general mechanical condition of the equipment, the working effect of the shale shaker is determined.
When drilling a well, the selection of the vibrating screen may be appropriate or may not be appropriate for drilling tools . If it is not appropriate, the shale shaker must continue to work, and it is possible to solve the problem through proper and reasonable operation. All commercial shale shakers can be used to remove the solid phase, but under the correct maintenance and operation, it will be more powerful.
Production efficiency of linear shale shaker will be influenced by many factors, such as the power vibration motor, and the physical properties of screening materials. In addition, we know that the output size of linear shale shaker depends on the width of sieve surface, and the screening accuracy depends on the screen length. So length and width of the screen is also an important factor can not be ignored that inspects the sifting efficiency.
In addition, the relationship between the width and length of the linear vibrating screen should also be grasped properly, if the width is too small and the length is too long, it will lead to the layer thickness on the screen, and difficult to screen; when the width is too big and the length is too small, although the material is slightly thin, but the residence time of particle in the sieve surface is shortened, and the screen penetration rate is still difficult to improve, we believe that the golden ratio between the width and length of the linear shale shaker is: 1:2.5-1:3.
Overall technical requirements
(1) The equipment need to meet the requirements of open job site and exactly demand in explosion-proof, anti leakage, corrosion, anti dust, high temperature resistance, and the rigs need to has high adaptability and be easy for inspection, maintenance and repair;
(2) Make sure that all liquid, gas, electric wires are standard, safe and reliable, reasonable layout, clear identification, installation and fixation is according to the relevant standards and specifications;
(3) All electrical equipment in the hazardous area is required to meet the explosion-proof requirements, and provide a certificate of explosion;
(4) The alarm, spacing limit and interlocking device of the drilling rig are sensitive, reliable and accurate. All safety equipment (pressure vessel) has qualification certificate and inspection report;
(5) The complete set of rigs equipment is equipped with safety signs and warning signs;
(6) The overall layout of the drilling rig is reasonable and the simplicity of the drilling rig is considered. Need to have a strong ability to transport at the hilly region, the truck-mounted drilling rig design including axle load, caarry capacity, brake, lighting, size, etc. to meet the requirements of highway transportation
(7) The drilling rig equipment must be equipped with an FZ18-14 type blowout prevention device;
(8) The drilling rig equipment must be equipped with a complete set of top drive device.
(1) Should check and ensure that the machanical and electrical is normal before starting. The opening and closing state of the valve, gear box and the bearing cavity oil level is normal.
(2) Before the start of the pump, it must be filled with oil. Although the screw pump with self absorption capacity, you should avoid the occurrence of dry friction before the oil suction because of the high speed, or it will cause damage to parts, even heating and burnt out.
(3) The screw pump should be started in the case of suction and discharge valve are all opened, to prevent overload or air suction. To the screw pump that with low temperature, high viscosity or large displacement, it should be started in the case of pump suction, discharge valve and bypass valve being all opened, in order to reduce the starting load, and turn down the bypass valve when the pump reach the rated speed.
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The screw pump is not allowed to close the discharge valve for a long time, and do the back-flow operation through regulating the valve completely. Also should not rely on the large flow of pressure relief valve to meet the needs of small flow pump. In this way throttle loss is serious, will cause the temperature rise of the liquid discharged from screw pump, and even the deformation and damage of pump due to high temperature.
(4) It should be stopped after the start of the pump without oil discharge, and start it again after pouring oil, if failure, check whether the suction pipe is leaking, the filter is dirty and so on. You can start it again after troubleshooting.
The selection of suitable drilling fluid horizontal screw centrifuge can not only solve the problem of production, improve the work efficiency, but also save the cost of production, reduce the operational risk.
The main factors that influence the selection of the drilling fluid centrifuge are the following:
1. The rotating speed of the drilling fluid centrifuge: generally speed of decanter centrifuge machine should be more than 3000, the higher the speed, the higher the centrifuge separation factor, and the better the separation effect is;
2. Materials of drilling fluid centrifuge: different materials have different wear-resisting, corrosion resistance and other physicochemical indexes, the lowest material of foreign decanter centrifuge is generally 316 stainless steel and duplex stainless steel, abrasive elements must use ceramic composites;
3. The differential control of the centrifuge: the control accuracy of the differential mechanism is different, and the life and maintenance costs of have a large gap, the higher the differential speed, the better the adaptability of the material, it is appropriate to use the device with high accuracy and high speed;
4. Major diameter ratio: the larger the major diameter ratio of decanter centrifuge, the greater the processing capacity, and the smaller the moisture content is;
5. Control system: whether it is automatic programming control, the domestic and foreign equipment manufacturers have basically realized the full automation control of the equipment currently;
6. Installation Power: it will impact on the energy consumption control, generally the energy consumption ratio of domestic equipment is high, and the energy consumption ratio of foreign equipment is low;
7. Processing production technology: the decanter centrifuge is the separation equipment of high precision machining requirements, the production produced by the enterprise that is not with precision machining capability has high maintenance rate, and the processing capacity is limited.
The large-scale development and utilization of shale gas in the United States has promoted our country from government departments to scientific research institutions and prodection enterprises to start research and exploration and development test boom of shale gas. After just a few years, China has made important progress in the basic research, resource investigation, demonstration area construction of shale gas, etc,. There are aready four major opportunities to accelerate the development:
First, the external dependence of China’s natural gas has risen sharply, it needs to accelerate the development and utilization of shale gas.
Since 2000, with the discovery of a number of large gas field such as Kela 2, Sulige and Puguang, natural gas production had grew rapidly at an average annual rate of 12.1%, and had reached 10.72 billion square in 2012. But the output growth is still not up to the demand growth, leading to the rapid development of natural gas industry has entered a short supply situation, the external dependence has reached 25% in 2012. In this situation, to accelerate the development and utilization of shale gas and other unconventional natural gas is very important to promote the rapid development of China’s natural gas industry and the development of low-carbon greeen development of economy and society.
Second, China’s shale gas resources are relatively rich, which means it has the resource base of development.
China’s land develop three major kinds organic shale of marine facies, transiltional facies, continental facies, distribution range widely, have good material basis for formation of shale gas. Different evaluation from domestic and foreign institutions think that the recoverable resources of China’s shale gas technology is 31.6 trillions, 25 trillions, 8.8 trillions (marine facies), 10 to 15 trillions, etc.. Overall, potential resource of China’s shale gas is relatively large, so it has the resource base for the accelerated development.
Third, government have introduced a number of preferential support policies, which has created a good condition for the development of shale gas. At present, the National Energy Bureau has promulgated the <Notice about publishing subsidies pulicy of the development and utilization of shale gas>, <shale gas industry policy >and other preferential policies to support the development of shale gas. Ministry of Land and Resources has conducted two rounds of shale gas block tender to attract a large number of enterprises to invest in shale gas development. Some local governments have also allocated special funds for shale gas research and exploration and development experiments.
Fourthly, the development and utilization of shale gas in China has the late-moveradvantage, the rhythm can be speeded up if the organization is effective. After about 30 years of research, the United States has gradually formed the core technology of shale gas exploration and development, such as horizontal wells, multi section fracturing, micro seismic monitoring and so on. For China’s shale gas development, we can learn from the development experience of the United States, through the introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation of mature technology, to achieve the time of scale development is expected to greatly shorten than the United states.