There are many methods of terminology difinition retated to sand pump, roughly as follows:
Flow: the volume of liquid through a pipe at a given time. Most of the horizontal axis of pump curve represents the flow of pump, the unit is gal/min or m ³ /h.
Friction loss: when the liquid enters the pipe and get in touch with the internal diameter of pipe, valve, element, etc., the head loss caused by the force that block the fluid movement in the pipe or due to the turbulence or delay.
Pressure head: the distance of the water in a pipe with a bottom opening will be increase, and its value is measured at the bottom of the tube.
Usable net suction head: pressure head value greater than absolute zero on the suction flange of sand pump. Friction loss, atmospheric pressure, fluid temperature/steam pressure, altitude and abnormal gravity will all affect the value. This value must be calculated.
The net positive suction head that requested: the inlet pressure head is greater than the absolute zero that required to make the centrifugal pump do normal work. This value varies with the size and flow of the pump, which is generally expressed in the pump curve.
TDH: when pressure head of pump entrance is excess, the pressure head value produced by sand pump. This value is found in the left axis of most pump curves.
The total lift: the summation of entrance pressure head and total dynamic head of centrifugal pump.
One set of linear motion shale shaker is going to shipped to India from our company.
The mud cleaner is designed according to customer’s requirements, which is composed by two parts: desilter and shale shaker.
The mud cleaner is intended to be used as solids control equipment in oil well drilling operation for removal of fine solids or silts from the drilling mud. Mud cleaner shall use two stage mechanical processes for solid control. First stage shall remove fine solids through desilter(Hydro cyclones). In the second stage of desilter under flow will discharge on fine mesh screens of linear motion vibrating shale shaker.
The specifications of this mud cleaner as followings：
|Working pressure||0.25~0.45 Mpa|
|Handling capacity||160-240 m3/h|
|Inlet pipe diameter||150mm|
|Discharge pipe diameter||200mm|
|Shale shaker model||DCS630-3|
|Suitable power supply||380V /50Hz|
|Screen dimension||1250×630mm, 3pieces，150-250mesh|
|Total weight of equipment||2800kg|
The drilling fluid centrifuge do the separation based on the size and density of the solid phase, and its processing and separation ability is not only determined by the characteristics of the device itself, and it also has a great relationship with the process operation.
The separation point is one of the important parameters of drilling fluid centrifuge, for example, the separation point of one drilling fluid centrifuge to barite is 2 ~ 4μm, it means that most solids phase particles in the overflow is less than 2 ~ 4μm after input into the drilling fluid centrifuge, and solid particles in the underflow is much greater than 2 ~ 4μm. If centrifuge parameters adjusted to the appropriate level, the overflow will contain colloidasl solid and some superfine solids, and underflow containing ultrafine solid and almost all of the large solid particles.
When the centrifuge separation point is 10μm, if the diameter of solid phase in the drilling fluid that be input is greater than 20μm, then the overflow will be a pure liquid with no solid phase and underflow contains all of the solid phase. The separation point of the drilling fluid centrifuge is not fixed, it will change with the load and the adjustment of the equipment.
One purpose of mud cleaner is used to remove part of solid phase in the expensive non weighted drilling fluid, such as solid phase in KCl drilling fluid. In this case, the solids phase which size is bigger than sieve pore are removed through the underflow of desilter, and smaller solid and liquid is retained in the drilling fluid system through the shale shaker. This method is also effective for non – water – based drilling fluid and salt water – based drilling fluid.
In the non weighted drilling fluid system, underflow of desilter can reach the drilling fluid tank directly. The centrifuge can eliminate the larger solid phase while the smaller solid and most liquid remain in the drilling fluid system. If there is a centrifuge can be used in the well site, this method will be very convenient. The vast majority of the solids can be through the drilling fluid cleaner, but it is not easy for them to get through the centrifuge, the application of the two kinds of technology above are very extensive in field.
A good solid phase control process requires that the large drill cuttings generated during the drilling process can be separated after arrived on the ground, and it will not affect the performance of the drilling fluid. Usually, most of solid phase removed by mud cleaner is the barite powder. This indicates that the cuttings is mostly distributed to the drilling fluid.
When drilling smectite formation with clean water, most of the solids phase dispersed to drilling fluid are small particles which suggesting that the drilling fluid has good inhibition. Usually, the mud cleaner should be closed, to remove these small particles with the centrifuge. After the non weighted drilling fluid through the shale shaker, desander and desilter, the size of debris be removed will decrease in turn.
Due to the small size of some particles, which can not be separated by the cyclone yet, so it will still left over in the drilling fluid.
Due to different floor height of drilling rig, so the height of solid control system matched to it is different, thus making the height from ground of liquid gas separator in well control and the connector of solid control system change. The height from ground of the past liquid gas separator and interface of solid control system is the approximate height developed by oil field customers, and doing some changes to the ground where the liquid gas separator is located on if there is still disparity after delivery, pad it if lower and dig out the ground with equal size, which is not only a waste of time, delay the progress of the production, but also increased the intensity of labor.
Adjustable pedestal type liquid gas separator provides the pedestal that has a simple structure, reasonable design, easy to use and easy to adjust the height of the liquid gas separator.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the adjustable pedestal type liquid gas separator is realized by the following technical scheme:
- It includes the, a fixed tube and the bottom plate, four corners of the plate surface are all welded with fixed pipe, the lift pipe is inserted in each of the fixed pipe, a fixed tube is fixedly connected with lifting pipe through the fixed pin shaft and a pin.
- The lift pipe and the fixed pipe surface of adjustable pedestal type liquid gas separator of are equipped with a plurality of uniform arrangement of holes.
Compared with the existing technology, adjustable pedestal type liquid gas separator has the characteristics of low cost, simple structure, reasonable design, convenient use, practical, and effective realization of the easy adjustment of the height of the liquid gas separator, reduce the labor intensity, reduce the production cost and improve the work efficiency.
Waste drilling fluid is one of the main pollutants in the oil industry. In recent years, with the increasing demand of energy in the world, the types of drilling fluids are increasing, and the harmful components and the additives are also increasing. According to the statistics, the waste drilling fluid produced annually in our country is about 2500-3200 million cubic meters, of which the 1/2 directly discharged into the surrounding environment, the ecological damage is increasingly serious, and the harmless treatment of waste drilling fluid is imminent.
With the increase of environmental protection requirements, the corresponding treatment has been carried out in various countries. According to the different treatments and discharges between domestic and foreign, waste mud management methods are also many and varied, and the effect of each are not identical, including curing treatment method, chemically enhanced solid-liquid separation technology, mechanical dehydration method, recovery circulation and usage method, safety landfill burial etc. Technology of harmless treatment by curing process is one of the methods to be used more, but it just do the conventional treatment of inhibition and conversion to the waste drilliing fluid, the pollution of the environment is still serious by this method. And then with it, the drilling fluid mud not landing treatment process opens up a new chapter of waste mud management.
Shale shaker is the first stage purification solids control equipment in oil drilling. Its function is to remove large solids in drilling fluids. Under the action of the shale shaker, drilling operating keep maximum high porosity, high screening efficiency, large treatment capacity, easy to replace screen, reduce cost. Shale shaker with larger screen surface and treatment capacity can meet requirement of manufacturing at site.
Drilling mud shale shaker is mainly composed of the following components.
1. Buffer slot
Drilling fluid returning to ground from the bottom of the well flow into buffer slot of shale shaker, decreasing drilling mud speed, and make the drilling liquid flow into the screen evenly and slowly.
2. Screen box
It is used to tight shale shaker screen, support vibration exciter, and transfer continuous vibration from vibration exciter to screen, so as to achieve the purpose of screening
3. Shale shaker screen
It used to remove solid, recover important part of the drilling fluid. Shale shaker removing solids size completely depend on screen hole mesh size.
4. Vibration exciter
It is the power source of the screen box vibration. Producing periodic exciting force make screen box continuous and periodic vibration.
5. Damper spring
To support the screen box and a vibration exciter and ensure enough space with vibration sieve box. At the same time, as the auxiliary to meet screen box vibration requirements, and buffering and reducing dynamic load on base and a drilling fluid tank.
Support all the parts for convenient installation and transportation.
As a special type in solids control system, sand pump is power source for desander, desilter, swirl mixing device, etc, in drilling mud solids control equipment. Furthermore, it also can be used as grout pump and for assisting grouting, as a make-up pump for wellhead supply, as a delivery pump for drilling mud transport between mud tanks.
Since drilling mud is suspension with a large number of solid particles and various chemical additives, impeller and pump case of sand pump should be accordance with motion law of two-phase flow system so as to reduce wear and prevent corrosion. For sand pump works in dreadful environment for long time, the sealing of shaft end should be very reliable.
Moreover, drilling mud has a certain abrasive and corrosive, pump body often is destroyed, we must validly block the solid particles into the impeller front and rear guard. And another important question is that flow and head sand pump should be matched with desander, desilter and swirl mixing device, otherwise, hydraulic cyclone can not work normally.
We should notice the flowing points in the process of sand pump running.
1. Check once per hour. Increase the number of checks in key areas and weak links.
2. Pay attention to current instructions and pump operation, add oil timely.
3. Often pay attention to the surface of the pump. Pay attention to stabilizing head of sand pump. If the efficiency has declined should raise the head amount, if the amount is too large must take measures to adjust.
- Packing seal problem of shear pump:
Fault: Serious leakage of sealing filler, and the packing is wore heavily, the surface of shaft sleeve is wore.
Solution: Remove the packing, move in the wall of the shaft sleeve with a fine wire which is bent 90 degrees. Replace the axle sleeve If a deep groove is checked out, packing gland pressure too tight lead to serious wear of packing.
- Polyurethane problem of shear pump:
Fault: The serious wear of oil seal causes serious leakage.
Solution: Replace the polyurethane oil seal. In general, the polyurethane oil seal and the sleeve at the place of shaft seal should be replaced after the pump running for 3-6 months
- Shear pump packing is burnt:
The reason: Filler cap pressure too tight, causing overheating.
Solution: Replace the packing and the gland pressure can not be too tight.
- The rotation of impeller or vice impeller of shear pump is not normal:
Reason: The gap between the back of the impeller and the guard plate is small, or
the gap of the secondary impeller between the shield plate and the stuffing box is too small.
Solution: Use the bolt and nut to adjust the clearance. Twirl the shaft by hands after adjustment, there should be no resisitance card and friction sound in each part, and it should be rotating flexible.
With the improvement of environmental protection requirements, environmental problems have become increasingly prominent the chemical industry, many companies began to focus on mechanical seal leakage problems, and the pump seal is particularly important. Seal plays a very important role in the whole equipment, , stable operation of the device, and even the safe and stable operation of production. Especially in the chemical industry, the role of sealing is particularly important. In the chemical industry, the medium of the pump is flammable, explosive, toxic and harmful, once leak, and not be found in time, it will cause immeasurable loss. Therefore, the leakage of mechanical seal is one of the key work of chemical plant.
Mechanical seal structure and common leak points
There is a pair of end faces perpendicular to the rotating axis of mechanical seal, the face under the role of fluid pressure and compensation mechanical stretch, depends on the auxiliary seal with the other end to keep fit and relative sliding, so as to prevent the leakage of medium. The mechanical seal is composed of two parts, one is the static ring, the other is the relative operation, so as to achieve the goal of the lowest leakage degree.
There are many types of mechanical seal, while the main leakage points are:
(1) The sealing of shaft sleeve and the shaft; (2) The sealing of ring and sleeve; (3) The sealing between moving ring and static ring; (4) Sealing between static ring and static ring seat; (5) The seal between seal end cover and pump body.